Seismic Methods | Environmental Geophysics | US EPA

Seismic methods are the most commonly conducted geophysical surveys for engineering investigations. Seismic refraction provides engineers and geologists with the most basic of geologic data via simple procedures with common equipment. Any mechanical vibration is initiated by a source and travels to the location where the vibration is noted. ...

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3D Seismic Imaging for Mineral Exploration - ia Tech

3D Seismic Imaging for Mineral Exploration ... For more than 70 years, reflection seismic methods have been used with great success to explore sedimentary basins for hydrocarbons. Some problems associated with the application of seismic profiling in the hardrock ... First successful application of 2D seismic profiling in a mining camp ...

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Seismic refraction - Ground geophysics seismic method

The seismic refraction method involves measuring the shortest time required for an induced seismic pulse to travel from the source location to a series of receivers. From this travel time data, seismic velocities and layer depths can be calculated.

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Mining Exploration: A New Frontier for the Canadian ...

Mining Exploration: A New Frontier for the Canadian Seismic Industry. David W ... refraction static correction, first-break and NMO stretch mute and the preservation of large source-receiver offset traces. ... Encouragement provided by the results of research to date may lead to further application of seismic methods by the mining industry in ...

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GEOX - Exploration Methods: Seismic

The seismic refraction method is widely used in geotechnical studies. It is the most decisive technique of all the existing prospective methods, allowing the estimation of the thickness and speed of the strata. Assessing primary and secondary wave fronts, it is possible to estimate the elastic moduli of the illuminated layers.

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CDC - Mining - High Resolution Seismic Refraction ...

High resolution seismic refraction tomography has proved to be a useful tool to effectively estimate depth of blast induced damage in a mine face. Excavation blast damage can be as shallow as 1 to 2 m and requires resolution at a fraction of a meter for effective imaging. In this study, an ...

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Seismic Monitoring Strategies for Deep Longwall Coal Mines

Seismic Monitoring Strategies for Deep Longwall Coal Mines Peter Swanson, M. Shawn Boltz, and Chambers . DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health . Office of Mine Safety and Health Research . Pittsburgh, PA • Spokane, WA . October 2016

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Seismic Refraction | HGI – hydroGEOPHYSICS

Seismic Refraction. Seismic refraction is one of the more commonly used seismic methods and has many applications. In geotechnical engineering and mining applications, we have used this technique to determine depth to bedrock and rippability of for design and cost estimates. Groundwater applications include mapping bedrock channels, identifying fault and fracture zones, water table mapping ...

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Seismic reflection and borehole geophysical investigations ...

A high-frequency vibroseis seismic survey was conducted by Lithoprobe across a well-known section of the Matagami mining camp to assess the usefulness of seismic methods in lithological mapping. The data have been reprocessed to enhance shallow reflections. Critical processing steps for the ...

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Seismic Refraction What is it? How we Use It in our Work

Seismic Refraction (SR) is a surface geophysics method that utilizes the refraction of seismic waves on geology layers and rock/soil units to characterize subsurface geologic conditions. The method involves a geophysical principle governed by Snell’s Law, which is a formula used to describe the relationship between seismic wave angles of refraction when passing through a boundary between …

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Seismic Refraction | Geometrics.com

Geophysical Methods » Seismic Refraction; Seismic Refraction. Seismic refraction maps contrasts in seismic velocity – the speed at which seismic energy travels through soil and rock. This parameter typically correlates well with rock hardness and density, which in turn tend to correlate with changes in lithology, degree of fracturing, water ...

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Seismic Refraction | Open Ground

The seismic refraction method utilizes seismic waves travelling through different parts of the subsurface. A seismic source is used to generate compressional waves, which is measured by a seismograph and a series of evenly spaced sensors (typically 12, 24, 48 or more geophones).

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APPLICATIONOF SEISMIC METHODSTO MINERAL …

(Trill) deposit) and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) (McCreedy (M), Gertrude (G), and Blezard (B) deposits) surveys conducted by the GeologicalSurveyofCanada,industry,andLithoprobeintheSudbury

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Seismic methods: Seismic reflection - II

Applied Geophysics – Seismic reflection II Seismic reflection - II Reflection reading: Sharma p130-158; (Reynolds p343-379) Seismic methods: Applied Geophysics – Seismic reflection II Seismic reflection processing Flow overview These are the main steps in processing The order in which they are applied is variable

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Seismic refraction survey – Mine Closure

Geophysical methods in bedrock groundwater studies Monitoring of mining impact on natural waters using isotopic tracers (S, U, and Sr) – a pilot study from Talvivaara, northeastern Finland Use of H and O stable isotopes in recognition of preferable groundwater flow paths in bedrock fracture zones

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THE REFRACTION SEISMIC - Mining Directory

The seismic survey, before the sampling stage, leads to the cost effective exploration. One must know where the paleochannels are, before any drill or pit sampling can take place. The seismic profile-section costs much less than drilling, while provides more information. The drill, pit or bulk sampling is then reduced to testing significant areas.

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Aurora Mines Inc. Report on Seismic Refraction Investigation

2. THE SEISMIC REFRACTION SURVEY METHOD 2.1 Equipment The seismic refraction investigation was carried out using a Geometrics, Smartseis, S-24, 24 channel, signal enhancement seismograph and Mark Products Ltd., 48 Hz geophones. Geophone intervals along the multicored seismic cables were maintained at 5 metres in

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Illustrative Geophysical Exploration Methods Poster

Reflection seismic methods provide fine structural detail and refraction methods provide precise estimates of depth to lithologies of differing acoustic impedance. The refraction method has been used in mineral investigations to map low-velocity alluvial deposits such as those that may contain gold, tin, or sand and gravel.

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Geophysical Methods & Applications

using seismic acoustical waves. Reflection and Refraction are the most commonly used seismic techniques. These methods determine geological structure and rock velocities by either refracting or reflecting waves off boundaries between rock units with different seismic velocities or impedance. Seismic Refraction: Seismic refraction investigates ...

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Reflection seismology - Wikipedia

Reflection seismology (or seismic reflection) is a method of exploration geophysics that uses the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the Earth's subsurface from reflected seismic waves.The method requires a controlled seismic source of energy, such as dynamite or Tovex blast, a specialized air gun or a seismic vibrator, commonly known by the trademark name Vibroseis.

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Geophysical Prospecting - EAGE

Geophysical Prospecting is published by Wiley-Blackwell and EAGE. Geophysical Prospecting publishes the best in primary research in geoscience with a particular focus in exploration geophysics. The scope of the journal covers the potential field, electromagnetic and seismic methods applied to exploration and monitoring.

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Seismic Reflection and Refraction surveys.

Seismic Refraction. The seismic refraction method is based on the measurement of the travel time of seismic waves refracted at the interfaces between subsurface layers of different velocity. Seismic energy is provided by a source ('shot') located on the surface. For shallow applications this normally comprises a hammer and plate, weight drop or ...

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Seismic Refraction Geophysical Method - Subsurface ...

Seismic refraction is a geophysical method used for investigating subsurface ground conditions by utilising surface-sourced seismic waves. Data acquired on site is computer processed and interpreted to produce models of the seismic velocity and layer thickness of the subsurface ground structure.

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The Seismic Refraction Method | Frontier Geosciences Inc.

The seismic refraction method, due to its versatility, is one of the most commonly used geophysical methods in engineering, mining, groundwater exploration and environmental site investigations. Based on favourable density contrasts that generally exist between geological materials, the refraction method is utilised to provide detailed ...

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Introduction to Seismic Method - SlideShare

May 22, 2015· 1. Introduction to Seismic Method: 2. • Measurement of seismic-wave travel time is one of the most common geophysical method. • Seismic exploration is divided into refraction and reflection surveys, depending on whether the predominant portion of the seismic waves’ travel is horizontal or vertical.

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Seismic refraction - Wikipedia

Seismic refraction is a geophysical principle (see refraction) governed by Snell's Law.Used in the fields of engineering geology, geotechnical engineering and exploration geophysics, seismic refraction traverses (seismic lines) are performed using a seismograph(s) and/or geophone(s), in an array and an energy source. The seismic refraction method utilizes the refraction of seismic waves on ...

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Seismic Refraction, Surfseis, Compression Wave Velocity

The seismic tomography method allows the imaging of seismic wave velocity distribution in the subsurface based on these first breaks and the recording geometry. The method iteratively improves a subsurface velocity model and models how seismic waves propagate through the model.

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Module 1 : Site Exploration and Geotechnical Investigation ...

2 Seismic refraction method General ... Gravitational and magnetic methods are used in mining and petroleum engineering. In geotechnical engineering, the gravitational method has very limited use for survey of unconsolidated sediments over the dense bedrock.

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SEISMIC REFRACTION MODELING BY COMPUTER

point and geophone locations, refraction travel- times, and identification of the refraction layer associated with each traveltime. In the program, a first approximation model is generated by a computer adaptation of the delay-time method, INTRODUCTION Seismic refraction techniques have been used

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Seismic Refraction Prospecting | GeoScienceWorld Books ...

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A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW OF GEOPHYSICAL METHODS

A Comparative Overview of Geophysical Methods Kamil Erkan Division of Geodesy and Geospatial Science ... Seismic refraction method,53 b. GPR method, 53 c. Seismic reflection method, 56 12. ... Ore mining Ground Magnetotelluric - Natural (Ionospheric events) 0-150 km Hydrology ...

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APPENDIX 6 SEISMIC REFRACTION METHOD

The seismic refraction method has not been used in the mining industry as widely as other geophysical methods. Consequently, we provide here only a description of the fundamental aspects of the method. The reader requiring greater detail is referred to the descriptions given by Lankston (1990). A6.2 Acquisition and processing of seismic ...

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Seismic Refraction | Methods | site - Geophysics

The seismic refraction method is based on the measurement of the travel time of seismic waves refracted at the interfaces between subsurface layers of different velocity. Seismic energy is provided by a source ('shot') located on the surface. Energy radiates out from the shot point, either travelling directly through the upper layer (direct ...

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